II) ADDITIONAL BUILDING (NEW BUILDING)
additional building attached to the southeast of the main building
is of 6 stories. There are depots in the two stories under the ground
four stories of the building are arranged as exhibition saloons.
There is “Istanbul for Ages” on the first floor of the
building, “Anatolia and Troia for Ages” on the second
floor and “Surrounding Cultures of Anatolia: Cyprus, Syria-Palestine”
on the top floor. There is Infant Museum and architectural works
display on the first floor of the additional building. The Thrakia-Bithynia
and Byzantium display saloon, which was opened in August 1998, can
be visited on the floor under the first floor with the name of “Surrounding
Cultures of Istanbul”.
museum has received the European Council Museum Award in 1991, which
is its 100. establishment anniversary, with the new arrangement
made in the lower floor saloons and the Additional Building display.
EASTERN WORKS MUSEUM
building, which was made by Osman Hamdi bey in 1883 as Sanayi-i
Nefise (Fine Arts School), was organized as a museum with the works
made between 1917-1919 and 1932-1935. The building, which was closed
to visit in 1963, was opened to visit again in 1974 with a new display
by changing the inner parts.
the upper floor of the two-flat building, Anatolian, Mesopotamian,
Egyptian and Arabic works of art are displayed. Statue of Naramsin,
the king of Akad, the Kades Agreement and Zincirli statue are the
unique works of art in the museum.
in this museum there is a “Tablet Archive” in which
75.000 documents with cuneiform writings are kept.
kiosk that has been made by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1472 is one of
the oldest examples of Ottoman civil architecture in Istanbul. It
has been used as Muze-i Humayun (Empire Museum) between 1875-1891.
It was opened to public in 1953 with the name of Fatih Museum where
Turkish and Islamic works of art were displayed and it was transferred
to Istanbul Archeology Museums due to its site.
entrance façade of the kiosk is single-flat and the back
façade is of two-stories. There is a marble porch of 14 columns
in the entrance. The entrance exedra is decorated with mosaic enamels.
Various chinaware and ceramics from the Seljuk and Ottoman period
are displayed in the Kiosk that forms from 6 rooms and a middle
saloon. There are approximately 2000 works of art in the museum
and its depots.
Topkapi - Istanbul
Tel : (0212) 522 44 22 / 512 04 80-5 lines
Fax : (0212) 528 59 91
is located on the promontory of the historical peninsula in Istanbul
which overlooks both the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus. The walls
enclosing the palace grounds, the main gate on the land side and
the first buildings were constructed during the time of Fatih Sultan
Mehmet (the Conqueror) (1451 - 81). The palace has taken its present
layout with the addition of new structures in the later centuries.
Topkapi Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans,
starting with Fatih Sultan Mehmet until 1856, when Abdülmecid
moved to the Dolmabahce palace, functioned as the administrative
center of the state. The Enderun section also gained importance
as a school.
main exterior gate of the Topkapi Palace is the Imperial Gate (Bab-i
Humayun) which opens up to the Ayasofya Square. This gate leads
to a garden known as the First Court. This court has the Aya Irene
Church which was once used as an ammunition depot and behind the
Church there is the mint. In the past various pavilions allocated
to different services of the palace were located in the First Court.
In later years these have been replaced with public buildings and
schools. Some of these are still existing. At the end of the 19th
century Archeology Museum and School of Fine Arts (now Oriental
Works Museum) were built in the large garden which is to the northwest
of the First Court. The oldest structure in this section is the
Çinili Kosk built by Fatih, which is now used as the Museum
of Turkish Tiles and Ceramics. On the walls of this outer garden
facing Bab-i ali (the Imperial Gate), there is Alay Koskü (procession
Pavilion) where the Sultans used to watch the marching ceremonies.
A section of the outer garden was planned by the municipality at
the beginning of the 20th century and opened to the public. Known
today as the Gülhane Park, the enterance has one of the largest
gates of the palace. After the First Court, there is the Second
Court which contains the palace buildings. It is entered through
a monumental gate called Bab'us-Selam or the Middle Gate. The buildings
in this court form the outer section of the palace which is called
Birun. On the right there are the instantly noticed palace kitchens
with their domes and chimneys and the dormitories of those who worked
there. The most important of the buildings on the left side of the
court are the Kubbealti and the Inner Treasury. Behind Kubbealti
rises the Justice Tower, which is one of the symbols of the Topkapi
Palace. The Harem section, which comes all the way to the back of
these buildings is entered from the Third Court. Third Court is
entered through the gate called Bab'üs Sa'ade (Gate of the
White Eunuchs). This section of the palace is called Enderun, and
it is the section where the sultans live with their extended families.
Hence it is specially protected. The barracks of the Akagalar, which
guard Bab'üs Sa'ade are on both sides of the gate. There are
two structures. The first which is immediately opposite the gate
is the Throne Room or the Audience Hall. Here the sultans receive
the ambassadors and high ranking state officials such as Grand Visier
or the Visiers. Right behind the Throne Room there is the library
built by Ahmet III (1703 - 30). On the right side of the Third Court,
there is the barracks of the Enderun and the Privy Treasury which
is also known as the Mehmet the Conqueror Pavilion. On the side
facing the Fourth Court, there is the Larder Barracks of the Enderun,
the Treasury Chamber and the Chamber of the Sacred Relics. The left
side starts with the Harem. The harem which covers a large part
of the Palace consists of about 60 spaces of varying sizes. The
main structures which are located in front of the Harem, facing
the Third Court are Akagalar Mosque, Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Barracks
of the Sacred Relics Guards and Chambers of the Sacred Relics. Here,
the sacred relics brought back by Sultan Yavuz Selim from Egypt
in 1517 are kept. The Fourth Court is entered from a covered path
going from both sides of the Treasury Room. Here the buildings are
located in the first part of the court, which has two sections of
different levels. On the left side of this section called Lala Garden
or Lale Garden there is Mabeyn which is the beginning point of Harem's
access to the garden, terrace for the ladies with removable glass
enclosure, Circumcision Room, Sultan Ibrahim Patio and another one
of the symbols of Topkapi palace, the Iftariye (or Kameriye) and
Baghdad Pavilion. This pavilion was built by Murad IV in 1640 to
commemorate the Baghdad Campaign. At the center of the first section
of the Fourth Court, there is the Big Pool and Ravan Pavilion next
to it. This pavilion was also built by Murad IV in 1629, to commemorate
the Revan Campaign. The side facing the second section has Sofa
Pavilion (Koca Mustafa Pasha Pavilion), Basbala Tower and Hekimbasi
(Chief Physician) Room. The Sofa Mosque and Esvap Chamber and the
latest built Mecidiye Pavilion are on the right hand side of the
Fourth Court. Out of the pavillions built on the shore of the Marmara
Sea, only Sepetciler Mansion has survived until the present.
18th. Century when the Topkapi palace took its final shape, it was
sheltering a population of more than 10.000 in its outer (Birun)
and inner (Enderun) and Harem sections. It shows no architectural
unity as new parts were added in every period according to the needs.
However, this enables us to follow the stages Ottoman Architecture
went through from the 15th to the middle of the 19th century at
the Topkapi Palace. The buildings of the 15th - 17th centuries are
simpler and those of the 18th - 19th centuries, particularly in
terms of exterior and interior ornamentation are more complex.
Palace was converted to a museum in 1924. Parts of the Palace such
as the Harem, Baghdad Pavilion, Revan Pavilion, Sofa Pavilion, and
the Audience Chamber distinguish themselves with their architectural
assets, while in other sections artifacts are displayed which reflect
the palace life. The museum also has collections from various donations
and a library.
Edirnekapi - Istanbul
Tel: (212) 523 30 09
is located at Edirnekapi section of Istanbul. The dictionary meaning
of Kariye (Chora) is "outside of the city", or "rural"
in old Greek. The existence of a chapel outside the city walls in
very old is mentioned in some sources. The first Chora Church was
built on the site of this chapel by Justinian. The building which
managed to survive until the times of the Commenos with various
additions and repairs, gained importance when the Imperial Palace
Blakhernia near the city walls was expanded. At the end of 11th
century Maria Dukaina, the mother-in-law of Emperor Alexi I had
it rebuild. The church has a ciborium shaped space whose dome is
carried by four arches. During the Latin occupation of 1204 - 1261,
both the monastery and the church became extremely run down. During
the reign of Andronikos (1282 - 1326), one of the prominent names
of the day, the writer, poet and the minister of treasury Theodore
Methocite had the monastery and the church repaired towards 1313,
and had an annex to the north of the building, an outer narthex
to the west and a chapel (Parekklesion) to the south. These new
additions were decorated with frescoes and mosaics. Parekklesion,
which is a long single naved chapel going along the southern facade,
is built above a basement floor. It is partially covered with a
dome and the remaining sections are covered by vaults. It has a
single abscissa. The outer narthex which runs along the full western
facade forms the present facade. The northern wing is only an insignificant
corridor. The central dome has a high drum. It is a Turkish period
restoration and is made of wood. Outer facades are given plasticity
and movement with round arches, half braces, niches and rows of
stone and brick. The eastern facade is finished with abscissa extending
to the exterior. The middle abscissa is supported with a half arched
building was used as a church after the conquest of Istanbul but
was converted into a mosque in 1511 by the Vizier Grand Hadim Ali
Pasha, who later added a school and a alms kitchen next to it. After
the conversion, the mosaics and frescoes were covered, sometimes
by wooden blinds and sometimes by whitewashing over them. All the
mosaics and frescoes were uncovered with the work carried out by
the American Institute of Byzantine Research between 1948 - 1958.
mosaics and frescoes are the most beautiful examples of the last
period of Byzantine art (14th century). They show a striking similarity.
The monotonous background of the former period cannot be seen here.
The concept of depth, recognition of the plasticity and movement
of the figures and the elongation in the figures are the characteristic
of this style. Scenes from life of Jesus are given on the outer
narthex while the inner narthex has scenes from the life of Madonna.
On the portal of the door joining the outer to the inner narthex,
there is Christ the "Pantocrator". On the left the scenes
depict the birth of Jesus, population census being carried out under
the supervision of Governor Cyrinus, the angel telling Joseph to
leave taking Mary with him, the multiplication of loaves of bread,
water turning to wine and on the right side scenes such as messenger
kings informing about the birth of Christ, healing of the stroke
victims and the massacre of children.
most beautiful mosaic on the inside is Diesis. There is Jesus in
the center with Mary on the left, below Mary, Isaac Commenus and
a nun on the right of Jesus. This woman is the daughter of the Mikhael
Palaiologos VIII. She was married to the Mongolian Prince Abaka
Khan and following her husband's death returned to Istanbul and
became a member of a religious order. In this section, under the
dome there is Jesus and his ancestors are shown in the segments.
On the portal of the church proper, there is Christ in the middle
and on the left Theodoros Metochites who has restored the church
and adorned it with the mosaics presenting a model of the church.
life story of Mary, which is not included in the Bible is taken
from subjects based on the Apostles. At the inner narthex the scenes
about Mary can be followed depicting her birth, her first steps,
Gabriel telling her that she shall have a child, Mary buying wool
for the tabernacle and others. Mosaic above the inner portal of
the entrance to the main church depicts the death of the Virgin,
Madonna bearing the child Jesus and a Saint. Parekklesion is totally
decorated with frescoes. The Anastasia (rebirth) scene seen on the
abscissa is a masterpiece. The last judgment above it is shown here
in full. It is known that the niche on the right and left sides
of the Parekklesion are graves. On the dome of the Parekklesion
there is Mary and the child Jesus and 12 in the segments.